SPED 463 – Study Guide for the Final Exam

The exam is worth a total of 100 points.  You will be given 20 brief essay questions and you will be required to choose 10 questions worth 10 points each.  They will be taken from the list below. You must write at least two strong paragraphs for each question to receive full credit.  You may answer each question in an outline form, but please be thorough.

1.              List the common elements in the definitions of learning disabilities and the problems involved in each of these elements.Neurological Factors.  Cognitive Processing Factors.  Difficulty in Academic and Learning Tasks.  Discrepancy between a student’s potential for learning and academic achievement.  Exclusion of other causes. P. 14 in textbook
2.              Describe the prevalence rates of learning disabilities and explain the reasons why students are identified as having learning disabilities.Beginning in 2000 the number of students having a LD has decreased.  In 1997 4.4% of population were identified with LD. By 2006 number with LD dropped to 4.0%.  Even tho the numbers for SPED increased. Some students are being qualified: in OTHER areas – Autism, ADHD. The expansion and attention to early childhood education.  Improvements in reading instruction provided in Gen Ed. Shifts in identification approaches, including the use of Response-to-Intervention (RTI). P. 11 in text.
3.              Describe the increase of inclusion placements for children with learning disabilities and the importance of collaboration because of this trend.There are benefits to inclusion in Gen Ed:  provides greater access to their gen ed peers, raise expectations for student performance, help gen ed students be more accepting of diverse students, improve coordination between regular and SPED educators.  P. 29-30STRATEGIES: – Begin each lesson with a review of what has been learned. -2. Tell students the goal of the lesson.  3. Place students with special needs near the teacher. 4. Teach all students study skills. 4. Allow sufficient practice of the concepts of skills.  5. Use differentiated instruction. 6. Summarize what has been learned at the end of each lesson. P. 30.
4.              Describe the growth of the field of learning disabilities, highlighting the various historical phases.  P. 16, 19, 20
6.              W5.              Identify the series of three special education laws, including their names, Public Law numbers, and date of passage.  What changes were made in each of these laws? p.283
hat is meant by the term “high stakes testing,” and how do these policies affect students with disabilities.  P.257  
7.              What are the procedural safeguards and parents’ rights that protect the rights of students with disabilities? P. 122 .  IDEA 2004 strengthens the rights of parents and families in the ed process of their children.  A fundamental provision of the law is the right of parents to participate in the educational decision making process.  Parents have the right to: 1. A free, appropriate public education for their child. 2. Request an evaluation of their child.  3. Notification whenever the school wants to evaluate their child or change the child’s education placement. 4. Informed consent.  5. Obtain an independent evaluation of their child. 6. Have their child tested in the language that the child knows best. 7. Review all of the child’s school records.  8. Participate in their child’s IEP or IFSP for young children. (Individual family Service Plan). 9. Be informed of their child’s progress at least as often as parents of children who do not have disabilities. 
8.              Describe the ways the schools used discrepancy formulas to determine eligibility for learning disabilities services.  How has Response to Intervention changed the eligibility for special education?RTI is a procedure for teaching all students in the gen ed class.  Under IDEA 2004-2007 Schools are permitted to use RTI to identify students with LD or a comprehensive evaluation.  RTI is a prevention model to limit or prevent academic failure by providing evidence based teaching procedures for all students in gen ed.  The RTI provides for increasing intensity levels of support for those students who do not respond adequately to the instruction. (p.30)IDEA 2006 – when determining whether a child has a specific LD, schools can use the RTI procedures.  The law also notes that the schools may also determine a child’s eligibility for LD svcs by using a comprehensive evaluation procedure that may include a measurement of a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability. P. 31
9.              Describe ways to establish and maintain the student’s self-esteem and motivation. P. 86-89 Self Esteem – it is important to recognize the emotional impact of failure on the student. The parents anxiety becomes uncontrollable.  2. Fostering Motivation – the need to have friends. The need for independence. The need to be important. The need to know. The need to assert. The need for control.  The need to be recognized. The need to have affiliations and belong to a group. 3. Building Rapport – a good relationship between the teacher and student is an essential first step in clinical teaching.  A healthy relationship implies compassion w/out over involvement, understanding w/out indulgence and genuine concern for the students development. 4. Sharing Responsibility – Students should participate in both the analysis of their problems and the evaluation of their performance.  Student should also take an active role in designing lessons and choosing materials. 5. Providing Structure – and establishing routine are important for introducing order into chaotic lives of students w/ LD. Knowing a specific schedule, sequence of activities, and manner in which lessons are taught.  6. Conveying Sincerity – teacher to convey confidence that together they will find ways to overcome the difficulties. 7. Showing Success – Success is a vitamin. Self esteem is the result of success. Students should become aware and appreciate their success. Praising good work. Using extrinsic rewards as reinforcement.  Developing visual records of progress through charts and graphs. 8. Capitalizing on Students Interest – finding materials in student interest through conversations, sports, adventure, action, history, science, biography, memoir, mysteries, and humor. Find through TV GUide, newspapers, baseball, football, programs, music, popular magazines, computer manuals.  
10.           Describe the features of IDEA that pertain to placement or the delivery of education services, including the continuum of alternative placements and the least restrictive environment.IDEA requires states to:  1. Include students w/ disability in their statewide and district-wide assessments and report the results.  2. Develop alternative assessments and policies on accommodations for students w/ disabilities.ALSO :  An IEP for a student w/ a disability w/ problem behaviors must include a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) & (PBS)  Positive Behavioral Support.
11.           What are the implications of developmental psychology, behavioral psychology, and cognitive psychology for learning disabilities?Developmental– Jean Piaget is the pioneer. 1.  Maturation of cognitive skills. Thinking follows a sequential progression. 2.  An individual child’s ability to learn depends on his/her maturational status. 3.  Theory implies attempts to speed up or by pass the developmental process may actually cause problems.  There are developmental variations – slowness in specific aspects of development. Each person has a reset rate of growth in various human functions, including cognitive ability.  Maturational lags – abilities are maturing at different rates with some abilities lagging in their development. The demands of schooling can cause failure by student to perform beyond their readiness or ability at given stage of maturation.  Piagets stages: Sensorimotor Birth – Age 2. Preoperational stage – Age 2-7. Concrete operations State Age 7-11. Formal operations Age 11. Transition from one state to another depends on maturation.  Behavioral Psychology –   BF Skinner- considered the father of BP.  Helps us understand how learning behavior is shaped.  Significantly influences the way we teach. Has flourished over the past 50 years.  The IEP is an application of the behavioral approach. The IEP requires the use of observable and measureable behavior.  BEHAVIORAL UNIT – Antecedent. Target Behavior. Consequent Event (reinforcement). IEP must include FBA and PBS. (refer to notes module 7-8)Cognitive – Focuses on human process of learning, thinking and knowing. Clutters of mental skills that are essential to human function.    (Refer to notes)
12.           Discuss the following related to ADHD/ADD:  characteristics, instruments to assess, eligibility, medical treatments, and methods for teaching.
13.           Describe the precursors of learning disabilities in the early childhood years.
14.           Describe the programs and types of placements for providing services to young children and their families.
15.           Describe specific problems found at the secondary level of schooling that are not found at the elementary level.
16.           Describe some of the findings of recent brain research and its relationship to learning disabilities.
17.           List the major medical specialties involved in learning disabilities and explain the contribution of each medical specialty.
18.           Describe strategies for teaching speaking skills.
19.           Describe strategies for teaching listening skills.
20.           What are the consequences that reading disabilities have for the individual, society, and the nation?
21.           Describe ways to teach fluency and reading comprehension.
22.           What are some strategies for teaching word recognition?
23.           Describe the stages of writing and the purpose for encouraging early writing in young children. Prewriting – requires time, input & attention.  2. Writing a draft – concentration on mechanics.  3. Revising – helps student edit. 4. Sharing w/ an audience.
24.           Explain why students with learning disabilities often have problems in spelling.
25.           Describe the precursors of mathematics learning in young children.Spatial relationships, 2.  Visual motor, visual perception abilities. 3.  Concepts of direction and time. 4. Memory abilities.
26.           Describe the characteristics of students with mathematics disabilities. Not all student exhibit the same traits. 2.  Visual spatial processing. 3. Auditory processing.  4. Motor problems. 5. Memory and retrieval Dyscalculia – a medically oriented word that describes a severe disability in learning and using math.  Described as a specific disturbance in learning math concepts and computations associated with a central nervous system dysfunction.Problem areas in math calculations and math reasoning.  26% of students w/ LD receive direct assistance. 50% of students w/ LD have IEP goals in math.
27.           Describe the characteristics of nonverbal learning disabilities.
28.           Discuss methods of developing social competencies and building self-esteem.
29.           Describe ways teachers can help students with behavioral challenges.
30.           Describe the quality of resiliency found in some individuals with learning disabilities.

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:Kat: K. M. M.Ed

Author, Artist, Philosopher.

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